Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. 1863-1914.
On a political visit to Bosnia-Herzegovinia on June 28, 1914, the archduke and his wife were brutally murdered by a member of the Black Hand (a Serbian terrorist group fighting to incorporate the Serbs in Austria-Hungary into the Serbian state) named Gavrilo Princip. Rumor is that Princip was heading to a deli to grab a sandwich when he spotted the archduke’s car turning down the side street.
Technically, the Serbian government had nothing to do with the assassination, but they were aware the Black Hand was plotting an assassination attempt, and failed to inform the government of Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia after issuing an ultimatum to hand over the assassin, which Serbia refused, starting the war to end all wars: World War I.